Joana Almeida Troni – Catarina de Bragança (1638 – 1705)
Ana Cristina Duarte Pereira – Princesas e Infantas de Portugal (1640 – 1736)
Acabam de ser lançados entre nós mais estes dois livros de história. Em ambos os casos, trata-se de teses de mestrado defendidas na Faculdade de Letras da Universidade de Lisboa, por jovens licenciadas pela mesma Faculdade. A publicação só foi possível porque as autoras conseguiram encontrar generosos patrocinadores, pois o subsídio da Fundação de Ciências e Tecnologia seria manifestamente insuficiente para que alguma editora aceitasse a publicação. O primeiro foi patrocinado pela Fundação Maria Manuela e Vasco de Albuquerque d’Orey, com sede na Avenida D. Carlos I, Nº44 - 4º , 1200-649 Lisboa e o segundo pela empresa TURBUS – Turismo Internacional Rodoviário, L.da, com sede na Travessa do Calado, nº 23 – R/C D.to, 1170-068 Lisboa.
Catarina de Bragança (1638 – 1705), Princesa de Portugal, Rainha de Inglaterra
Possivelmente, a jovem Princesa portuguesa que foi Rainha de Inglaterra é mais conhecida no estrangeiro do que em Portugal. Como todos os casamentos reais, também o de Catarina, filha do Rei D. João IV, tinha sido combinado pela diplomacia dos dois países. Portugal travava com a Espanha a guerra da Restauração e precisava urgentemente de aliados na Europa. A França não nos inspirava confiança, pois queria fazer as pazes com a Espanha, nem que fosse à custa de Portugal. Havia que pedir a ajuda da velha aliada, a Inglaterra. Por sua vez, o Rei Carlos II de Inglaterra tinha os cofres vazios e dava-lhe jeito o elevado dote oferecido com a Princesa, de dois milhões de cruzados, e ainda as praças de Tânger e Bombaim, tendo sido esta última cidade o local onde se iniciou a ocupação inglesa da Índia.
O casamento não deixou de ter problemas e a Rainha não deixou descendência. Falecido o Rei em 1685, a Rainha abandonou a Inglaterra com o seu séquito em 1692. Mas deixou boas recordações entre os britânicos.
Em Portugal, dedicou-se sobretudo à caridade, mas foi ainda Regente do Reino por duas vezes em Maio de 1704 e algumas semanas em 1705.
O livro descreve com rigor as negociações para o casamento e está muito bem documentado como seria de esperar numa tese universitária.
Princesas e Infantas de Portugal (1640 – 1736)
O livro acompanha as implicações histórico-políticas da vidas das filhas dos Reis D. João IV, D. Pedro II e D. João V, que são as seguintes:
Filha de D. João IV e de D. Luisa de Gusmão
D. Joana – 18-9-1636 – † 17 de Novembro de 1653
Filha de D. João IV – ilegítima
D. Maria – 30 de Abril de 1644 – † 7 de Fevereiro de 1693
Filha de D. Pedro II e de D. Maria Francisca
D. Isabel Luísa Josefa – 6 de Janeiro de 1669 – † 21 de Outubro de 1690
Filha de D. Pedro II – ilegítima
D. Luisa – 9 de Janeiro de 1679 – † 23 de Dezembro de 1732
Filhas de D. Pedro II e de D. Maria Sofia de Neuburgo
D. Teresa – 24 de Fevereiro de 1696 – † 16 de Fevereiro de 1704
D. Francisca – 30 de Janeiro de 1699 – †15 de Julho de 1736
Filha de D. João V e de D. Mariana de Áustria
D. Maria Bárbara – 4 de Dezembro de 1711 – † 27 de Agosto de 1758
O livro descreve a educação, o ambiente da corte, o património e, sobretudo, os projectos de casamento. Os enlaces matrimoniais possíveis eram um investimento político cujo desenrolar estava fora do domínio das próprias interessadas, que, quando muito, poderiam algumas vezes ter o direito de veto em relação a algum pretendente. Não se trata de biografias, embora se narrem factos da vida das personagens. Mas, mais do que pessoas de carne e osso, aparecem-nos como pedras do xadrez político. Por vezes, é a morte prematura que deita por terra todos os planos e negociações em curso.
Também este é um livro muito bem documentado e escrito com rigor, que se lê com agrado.
Links sobre a Rainha D. Catarina de Bragança
The Queen's Royal Surrey Regiment
3rd Ser., Vol. 24, No. 2. (Apr., 1967), pp. 325-326.
REVIEWS OF BOOKS
Richer than Spices: How a Royal Bride’s Dowry Introduced Cane, Lacquer, Cottons, Tea, and Porcelain to England. and So Revolutionized Taste, Manners, Craftsmanship, and History in both England at America. By GERTRUDE Z. THOMAS. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf,1965 Pp. xx, 224,vii. )
While the number of books on the decorative arts is legion, few writers have attempted a systematic assessment, not simply of changing standards of taste, but of the transit of cultural values and materials across continents ant oceans. Such an undertaking has been overdue, and Mrs. Thomas has chosen the marriage of Charles II to the Infanta of Portugal, Catherine of Braganza, in May 1662—a marriage of money and politics— to examine the “eastern imports” and “exotic extravagances” that have “affected our western heritage” and “in great measure shaped our geography. (p. vi).
In this urbane book the author has essayed the peculiarly difficult task of reconstructing the social setting of the arts in the Restoration and its aftermath; what she achieves is a successful exploration ¡n those obscure and treacherous marches where the history of the arts, of economics, and of social patterns all meet. The subtitle of Richer than Spices indicates its major theme: the book suffers from having to cover too much in too little space, but, with discipline and economy of language, Mrs. Thomas tells an amazingly thorough story.
The terms of the royal bride’s dowry brought Charles II a half million pounds in cash, free trading rights for English ships in Brazil and the Portuguese East Indies, with Tangiers and Bombay ceded to England: the former gave England a naval base in the Mediterranean and the latter a foothold in India. The author presents a clear thesis, effectively argued and deftly written, that the terms of this dowry changed the taste, manners, and customs of England colonial America. Through the reactivation of the East India Company and establishment of new trade routes, the chinoiserie style was introduced into Restoration houses: Chinese silks and India cottons, cane chairs and lacquer cabinets, tea and sugar and all the accoutrements in silver, porcelain, and wood attached to the ritual of serving tea, the “fetish of porcelain,” and the “china-mania” in furniture and architecture. By the middle of the eighteenth century nothing in England escaped the Chinese influence. John Shebbeare moaned in 1756 that “so excessive is the love of Chinese architecture become, that at present the fox-hunters would be sorry to break a leg in pursuing their sport in leaping any gate that was not made in the eastern taste of little bits of wood standing in all directions.” (p. 172).
In her concluding chapter, the author expresses views on the importance and success of imported “luxury items” from the East Indies in colonial America. It was Benjamin Franklin who was to say with a touch of optimism and pride, “The Arts have always travelled westward, and there is no doubt of their flourishing hereafter on our side of the Atlantic.” (p. 178)
This highly personal book, intended and certain to be popular, is clear enough for the general reader and factual enough for the expert. It is fascinating to watch Mrs. Thomas employing a variety of evidence to bring to life the changing patterns of domestic fashions and habits in England and America in the century following the Restoration. Her argument is not original, but she states it with authority and a well calculated density of detail. This book marks another stage in the growing maturity of decorative arts history.
WENDELL D. GARRETT
The failed attempt to put the Queen in Queens
July 26, 1992
Catherine of Queens?
By JOSEPH P. FRIED
Catherine of Braganza, a 17th-century Princess of Portugal who became a Queen of England, just might become a 21st-century Colossus of Queens.
Catherine, the largely forgotten figure in whose honor the borough is named, has a small band of hardy partisans -- an ardent alliance of Portuguese and English admirers and Queens residents seeking to promote their borough's heritage.
And they are on a mission: to build a giant statue of Catherine, which, shooting skyward from the Queens waterfront opposite midtown Manhattan, would pay highly visible tribute to the royal namesake while "projecting the borough's identity more strongly," as a leader of the effort put it.
All of this is taken very seriously by the Friends of Queen Catherine, a three-year-old group that has been doing some big things lately. It recently chose a design for the monument, by the painter and sculptor Audrey Flack, from among two dozen entries in a competition the group sponsored. Astride a Giant Globe
Whether Ms. Flack's monumental conception -- a 36-foot bronze figure of the queen striding purposefully forward on a 54-foot-high base comprising an elaborate staircase, columns and a giant globe -- will ever become more than a monumental conception remains uncertain. More than $1 million would have to be raised, and approval might be needed from one or more public agencies that could be involved. The proposed site is on the East River shore in the Hunters Point area of Long Island City, across from the United Nations.
But if it is built, "it will be larger than most statues in New York and broadly visible from many sites in Manhattan, Brooklyn and Queens," said Janet M. Schneider, a member of the Friends' board and head of the committee that chose the Flack proposal from among five finalists.
The Flack monument, roughly the height of a nine-story building, would be taller than the Columbus monument in Columbus Circle (77 feet tall) but dwarfed by the Statue of Liberty (395 feet tall).
Ms. Schneider, a very pro-Queens Queens resident and former director of the Queens Museum, leaves no doubt about her zeal for the proposed monument and her belief in its importance.
"We expect it to be a stop on the Circle Line," she said. Zealous Donors Wanted
But she is also realistic, noting that the elaborate Flack monument could require a lot of equally zealous, not to mention wealthy, donors.
Manuel A. Sousa, the president of Friends of Queen Catherine, said funds would be sought from the financial and corporate communities in Portugal, England and New York. He said that Portuguese and British Government officials had endorsed the project and that he hoped this would lead to some contributions from the Governments.
How soon the monument may be built depends both on how fast the money is raised and the progress of Queens West, a major development project around the proposed spot for the monument, on the shoreline between 47th Road and 48th Avenue.
But while such practicalities are always on their agenda, the monument's champions never lose sight of the ultimate purpose of it all.
"The main idea is to bring to public knowledge who Queens is named after," said Mr. Sousa, an official with the Portuguese Trade Commission, which promotes exports from Portugal to the United States. Catherine Never Saw Queens
Catherine herself never made it to the New World, even if her legacy does imbue that bit of it that is now called Queens. The daughter of King John IV of Portugal, she was born in 1638 and became a queen in 1662 by marrying King Charles II of England.
After the Dutch surrendered New Amsterdam to Charles's brother, the Duke of York, in 1664, part of the area across what is now the East River was named Kings County, in honor of Charles, and another part Queens County, in honor of Catherine. While few people in Kings County today think of themselves as residents of Kings, preferring its far-better-known name, Brooklyn, residents of Queens County live in nothing but Queens.
In choosing Ms. Flack's proposal, Ms. Schneider said, the committee she headed saw that proposal as a "better realization of the goals of the project." These, she said, go beyond simply picturing the historical figure to portraying concepts like "universal peace and harmony" -- symbolized by the globe Ms. Flack would have the queen stand on -- and the "courage and dignity of women."
The four other finalists in the competition were Raymond Kaskey, who proposed a stone figure of the queen on horseback against a background shaped like the map of Portugal; Charles Parks, who proposed a standing, scepter-bearing queen in stainless steel; Rhoda Sherbell, whose standing figure would have been in bronze, and Clara Meneres, whose more abstract rendering of a marble-and-steel Catherine was designed, she said, to "reflect the dignity of the queen and relate to the surrounding architecture."
February 6, 1994
NEIGHBORHOOD REPORT: LONG ISLAND CITY PROGRESS REPORT; Putting the Queen in Queens
By BRUCE LAMBERT
It will be several years before a monument to Catherine of Braganza, for whom the borough of Queens was named, is installed in Hunters Point. But it is already beginning to take shape in a studio on the Upper West Side.
WHO?: A Portuguese princess, Catherine became Queen of England in 1662 by marrying Charles II. Through trade with Portugal, she is said to have helped introduce tea to England. And because her dowry included Bombay, England gained entry to India.
WHY QUEENS?: During the reign of Charles and Catherine, New York City passed from the Dutch to the English, back to the Dutch, then finally to England again. Kings County (Brooklyn) was named for Charles, and Queens County for Catherine.
SIZE: The statue will be about 36 feet tall on a 50-foot-high base.
HOW FAR ALONG IS IT?: The project started with a 26-inch clay statuette with succeeding models that size in plaster, wax and then bronze. Enlarged by the sculptor in stages for adjustments in its proportions, the statue is now in its second size, four feet tall. The next incarnation will be at 10 feet tall, followed by full height.
SYMBOLISM: Catherine stands atop a large globe and holds a smaller one in her left hand, which convey her role in bridging the old and new worlds and also represent the diversity of Queens today.
THE BOTTOM LINE: $1 million; cost of base unknown.
WHO'S PAYING?: The Government of Portugal donated $270,000, and $730,000 more is to be raised there. American donors will be asked to pay for the base.
FACING: Undecided. The artist wants a rotating base to give Catherine a one-quarter turn with each season.
SPONSOR: Friends of Queen Catherine, a nonprofit organization promoting her contributions and Portuguese-American ties.
UNVEILING: Planned for 1998, the 100th anniversary of the consolidation of Queens into New York City. B.L.
January 9, 1998
The Queen of Ethnic Nightmares; Cultural Politics Mires Statue of Borough's Namesake
By BARRY BEARAK
Among the homeless of New York, there is none more conspicuous than Catherine of Braganza. The Portuguese princess stands five stories high and is bronzed, bejeweled and highlighted with gold leaf. She cost about $2 million to create.
The statue is a gift, largely paid for by the people of Portugal. Its unveiling is scheduled for this fall, and for the last 10 years, as the sculpture grew from the conceptual into the colossal, its residence was intended to be Hunters Point in Queens. There, directly across the East River from the United Nations, Catherine would stand in one of the city's most prominent sites, eminently visible from the towering leviathans of Manhattan.
Why does a 17th-century monarch merit so desirable a domicile in New York? Because Catherine became the Queen of England after wedding its king, Charles II. By most historical accounts, the borough of Queens was named for her ladyship, just as Kings County (a k a Brooklyn) was named for him.
But now, as so often happens with public art projects, the appropriateness of the statue itself has come into dispute. This time, the conflict is about racial symbolism. Queen Catherine has been linked to the trans-Atlantic slave trade of her two nations. Late last month, the statue's donors were told to find it a home other than Hunters Point.
And herein lies a situation at once deadly serious and decidedly absurd, with Catherine's strong chin and serene eyes adorning a face that has launched 1,000 spats.
Among the principal participants are a self-described Portuguese nobody with a gift for raising money, a bevy of politicians only too willing to attach their names to his cause, a feminist sculptor whose vision of a European queen has multiracial features, a borough president blown this way and that by the cross-cultural winds, and community advocates who perceive evil imagery and terrible hurt where others see good will.
The statue's ''hands are bloody with the murder of millions of Africans,'' said Betty Dopson, the most vocal leader of a group formed to oppose the sculpture. ''Do we really need a statue of a slave mistress? To erect this monstrosity shows disrespect to every African-American whose ancestors were raped and shackled and shipped off.''
While historians find Catherine's connection to the slave trade tenuous at best, the Queens Borough President, Claire Shulman, one of the statue's earliest and most devoted advocates, has come to agree with critics who say guilt by association is guilt enough.
''Decent people are offended and that troubles me,'' she said. ''I don't think of Catherine of Braganza as necessarily evil,'' but, she added, the queen did live in a slave-trading nation ''in an age that was terrible to a portion of the world.''
For this reason, she said, she has reluctantly turned a 180 and declared that private land must be used for the huge sculpture and not the Hunters Point site, which she herself had helped negotiate from the Port Authority.
''I'm really betwixt and between here,'' she sighed the other day, at one point sandwiching her head between her hands as if trying to hold onto her mind. ''I can't tell you how sorry I am about all this because I can really see both sides. I'm losing a lot of sleep over this. Would you want to play King Solomon? Do you have a solution?''
Ms. Shulman's ''compromise'' has satisfied no one. Opponents do not want it to go up anywhere in America, on public land or private. Their quarrel with Catherine is similar to dozens of other battles over racial symbolism across the country. Last October, a majority-black school board in New Orleans renamed George Washington Elementary School because America's first president had been a slaveholder. Patrons of the statue, on the other hand, say finding an equivalent site will be impossible.
Among the many in this mess there may be no more pitiful a figure than Manuel Andrade e Sousa, the founder of Friends of Queen Catherine. The statue was his brainchild in 1988 -- and ever since, his life's work.
A decade ago, Mr. Sousa was only 28 and a minor official in the Portuguese National Tourist Office in New York. When he learned how the borough of Queens got its name, he reveled in the idea of some commemorative monument, something big like the Statue of Liberty. His problem was how to get started, and he only had two things going for him: Claire Shulman and the Mayor of Lisbon, a family friend.
In 1989, the Mayor invited Ms. Shulman and members of her staff to the Portuguese capital. The flag of Queens flew above City Hall. The Duke of Braganza accompanied Ms. Shulman to Catherine's birthplace.
In recent years, Ms. Shulman has been the project's honorary chairwoman. Others on the honorary committee have included Jimmy Carter, Senator Alfonse M. D'Amato, Mario M. Cuomo, David N. Dinkins, Mayor Rudolph W. Giuliani, Gov. George E. Pataki, Donald J. Trump and Gov. Christine Todd Whitman of New Jersey.
If the sculpture had been proposed for city property, a formal review with public hearings would have been required. But the Port Authority demanded no such proceedings. And Mr. Sousa, who said he was mindful that ''complaints are inevitable even if you only want to plant a tree,'' nevertheless felt that objections were unlikely because he had ''support from public officials throughout the city.''
Mr. Sousa may have been but a minor official, but he was a fund-raising whirlwind. So far, he has raised some $1.6 million. By his accounting, $600,000 was donated by Portugal's Government. Of the remaining $1 million, an estimated $800,000 comes from Portuguese corporations and individuals, and $200,000 from Americans.
''Claire Shulman's decision is wiping out 10 years of work,'' he said.
Similar pain -- and even outrage -- can be heard from Audrey Flack, the artist who won the competition to create the statue and has spent six years on the project. By her reckoning, Catherine was a virtuous woman who faced her own particular oppression. The magic kiss that had smitten King Charles II was an enchanting dowry that included the colonial trading posts of Tangier and Bombay. In return for their princess, the Portuguese received an alliance with England. For her part, Catherine got a philandering husband.
Ms. Flack saw in the queen ''a powerful and positive image of a surviving female.'' Hunters Point provided a perfect site. Catherine could look seaward with wind blowing her hair and the sun lighting the colored glass on her bodice.
The scale of the project was daunting, of course. How does a sculptor get the proportions just right on a 35-foot-tall body atop a 15-foot base? Ms. Flack worried about the curve in the eye sockets, the musculature of the mouth. She spent two months lowering the bosom. ''The face fought me the whole way,'' she said. ''I believe in energy webs, and I was picking up Catherine's energy. I knew there was a truer face.''
That face, once it had revealed itself to the sculptor, had full lips, a broad nose and long curls that could well be dreadlocks. ''It is a multiracial face,'' Ms. Flack said.
The statue, now at a foundry in Beacon, N.Y., awaits the pouring of the molten metal and the hot chemicals that will give it a green cast. As the design went into its final stages, the sculptor was preparing herself for art-world critics who have called her past work kitschy and overly conscious of political correctness.
Now, in advance of that, her Catherine is called a racist. ''Here I made a statue with healing and positive values, and things are turning into a civil war, a race war,'' she said.
Actually, many early objections did not even involve issues of race.
''American ideals are not based on statues of a monarch,'' said Thomas Paino, an architect who is chairman of a Hunters Point group that has opposed much of that community's development. ''Consider the ironies. This statue will overlook a Revolutionary War battleground.''
Mr. Paino, Ms. Dopson, church leaders and educators formed a multiracial group to take on the Friends of Queen Catherine, which was best done by taking on Ms. Shulman.
''Claire Shulman would not accept a statue of Eva Braun or anyone else associated with the Third Reich,'' Ms. Dopson said. ''Well, to us Catherine would be a black swastika. How can she expect us to accept that?''
The Rev. Charles Norris, executive secretary of the Southeast Queens Clergy for Community Awareness, scoffed at the idea that the sculpture would benefit the borough, saying that the way the statue would be turned, the people of Queens would only see the back.
On Dec. 11, Ms. Shulman called a meeting of both sides. Another invitee was Frank Melton, a professor of history at the University of North Carolina who was prepared to explain that there was no evidence that Catherine owned slaves or profited from the trade, that in fact her will actually left a sum for the ''Redemption of slaves as is customary to do by the religion of the Holy Trinity.''
But amid the shouting, he was never permitted to speak. Indeed, as he tried to discuss the will, the anti-Catherine forces walked out.
''Until then,'' Ms. Shulman recalled, ''I guess I had never understood the depth of their feelings.''
May 3, 1998
NEIGHBORHOOD REPORT: LONG ISLAND CITY; A Statue Fit for Queens?
By RICHARD WEIR
Reported in newspapers from India to Germany, the furor over a planned statue of a 17th-century Queen Catherine returned last week to Hunters Point, the would-be waterfront home of the 50-foot bronze sculpture honoring the monarch who is widely considered to be the namesake of Queens County.
Opponents of the statue clashed with a handful of supporters Tuesday at a meeting held in a gallery of the former Public School 1, now an arts center. Much of the debate focused on Catherine of Braganza's ties, however tenuous, to the colonial slave trade. The Portuguese princess became Queen of England upon marrying King Charles II in 1662.
''Their history is awash in blood, African blood,'' Betty Dopson, the leader of a group opposing the statue, said. She and others acknowledge that Queen Catherine never owned slaves, but contend that as royalty of two countries involved in the slave trade, she reaped its benefits.
The statue, now being cast at a foundry in Beacon, N.Y., was the brainchild of Manuel Adrade e Sousa, a Portuguese tourism official who envisioned it as a goodwill gift from his country. In 1988 he founded Friends of Queen Catherine, which raised $1.6 million and attracted supporters like Mayor David N. Dinkins and the Queens Borough President, Claire Shulman. But after hosting a heated December meeting, Ms. Shulman has distanced herself from the project. And Mr. Dinkins now says he opposes it.
Because the Port Authority owns the site for the statue, on the East River shoreline, no formal public review was required. The meeting Tuesday was held by a local preservation group opposed to the statue.
The half-dozen people who turned out to extol the Queen said she was as a symbol of strength rather than tyranny. She endured anti-Catholic bigotry, they said, and a husband who had six mistresses and fathered 14 children, none with her. The supporters also pointed out that Catherine never profited from the slave trade and said she left money after her death to help free slaves.
''Let us forgive and move on,'' suggested Paul Claudato, who said the statue would bring tourists to Queens.
But Dorothy Morehead, a real estate broker, saw it as an insult to patriots of the American Revolution. ''Almost within sight of the proposed statue, British soldiers overran American forces,'' she said. ''British soldiers bayoneted them to trees and left them to die.''
And Roy Gussow, a sculptor from Long Island City, said the statue reminded him ''of a 17th-century Barbie doll.''
June 4, 2000
By TINA KELLEY
Not a Face to Launch Many Ships at All
The statue of Queen Catherine of Braganza, once slated for a prime waterfront throne in the borough named for her (Queens, not Braganza), has had a horrible couple of years. Her supporters dwindled, her face was rearranged, and now, the woman who designed her has described her in a lawsuit in Federal District Court in a way no royal portraitist would dare. To wit: her nostrils are too large and uneven, the whites of her eyes are different sizes, her forehead has caved in, her lower lip protrudes too much and her chin has doubled. (The picture shows a 1994 model.)
Audrey Flack, the Manhattan-based sculptor, is suing those involved in financing and casting the 35-foot-tall statue.
The Friends of Queen Catherine raised about $2 million to build and place it across the East River from the United Nations building, but critics complained that the 17th-century queen of England, born in Portugal, had ties to the slave trade, and the project seemed to stall. In March 1999, Ms. Flack discovered that the molds and clay model for the statue's face, not yet cast, had been damaged at the Tallix foundry in Beacon, N.Y., and an assistant of Ms. Flack's was asked to make repairs.
Unsatisfied with the results, Ms. Flack is suing the Friends of Queen Catherine and the foundry. She is asking for millions in damages and wants to prevent the statue from being cast with the new molds. ''I cannot let a piece go out that doesn't meet the standards of my work,'' she said.
But in recent court papers, Michael S. Oberman, the lawyer for Friends of Queen Catherine, disagreed.
''The simple and undisputed fact is that neither F.Q.C. nor Tallix wanted the truly regrettable sequence of events that resulted from the political controversy over the Queen Catherine project,'' he said. ''In many respects, F.Q.C. is the most injured party here, for its mission has been wholly thwarted. It should not be held liable for its own misfortune.''
Efforts to get a response from the lawyer for the foundry were unsuccessful.